And he made a molten sea, ten cubits from one brim to the other; it was round all about, and his height was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about. |

1 Kings 7:23 |

The following list is not meant to be all-inclusive of all information about

^{ }ca 1650 BC | Egyptian scribe Ahmes wrote the Rhind Papyrus documenting that the Egyptions used the equivalent of (16/9)^{2} ≈ 3.16049. |

3rd cent BC | Archimedes of Syracus (287-212 BC) developed the polygonal scheme and established 3 10/71 < π < 3 1/7 (≈3.14084 < π < ≈3.14286) and used 211875/67441 ≈ 3.14163 49 |

2nd cent AD | Claudius Ptolemy (87-165 AD) published the value 3+8/60+30/3600 ≈ 3.14167 |

5th cent AD | Zu Chongzhi (430-501) established 3.14159 26 < π < 3.14159 27 using the polygonal method. |

1424 | π computed to 14 digits by Al-Kashi from Samarkind. |

1573 | Valentius Otto used 355/113 (≈3.14159 29203 5). |

1671 | James Gregory discovers the arctan series. |

1610 | π computed to 35 digits by Ludolph van Ceulen using a polygonal approximation. |

1706 | First use of the symbol π to represent the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle by William Jones in Synopsis Palmariorum Matheseos.Not adopted for general use until 1737 when used by Leonard Euler in Variae observationes circa series infinitas. |

1706 | π computed to 100 digits by John Machin using an arctan series. |

1761 | π proved to be irrational by the Swiss mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert. |

1874 | π computed to 527 digits by William Shanks (actually computed 707 digits, but an error was found in the 528^{th} place in 1946). |

1882 | π proved to be transcendental by the mathematician Carl Louis Ferninand von Lindemann. |

1947 | π computed to 808 places by D. F. Ferguson using a desk calculator. |

1949 | first time 1,000 digits of π computed—2037 digits using the computer ENIAC (previous record was 808 digits) |

1958 | π computed to 10,021 digits using a Pegasus computer by Felton at the Paris Data Processing Center. |

1961 | π computed to 100,265 digits using an IBM 7090 computer at the IBM Data Processing Center in New York by Daniel Shanks and John M. Wrench, Jr. |

1973 | π computed to 1,000,000 digits using an CDC 7600 computer by Jean Guilloud and Martine Bouyer. |

1976 | Richard Brent and Eugene Salamin published a new iterative and quadratic algorithm to determine π. |

1983 | π computed to 16,777,000 digits using an Hitachi S-810/20 computer by Ushiro and Kanada |

1978 | π computed to 201,326,000 digits (201 million) using an Hitachi S-820/80 computer by Kanada and Tamura |

1989 | David and Gregory Chudnovsky published a new very fast series to compute π. |

1989 | π computed to 1,011,000,000 digits (1 billion) by David and Gregory Chudnovsky on a home build computer, m zero. |

^{ }1995 | David Bailey, Peter Borwein, and Simon Plouffe publishes an efficient method to compute the n^{th} hexadecimal digit of π without having the previous n−1 digits. |

1997 | π computed to 51,539,600,000 digits (52 billion) using an Hitachi SR2201 supercomputer by Yasumada Kanaka and coworkers at the University of Tokyo. |

1999 | π computed to 206,158,400,000 digits (206 billion) using an Hitachi SR8000 supercomputer by Yasumada Kanaka and coworkers at the University of Tokyo. |

2002 | π computed to 1,241,100,000,000 digits (1.2 trillion) using an Hitachi SR8000/MP supercomputer by Yasumada Kanaka and coworkers at the University of Tokyo. |

2009 | π computed to 2,576,980,377,524 digits (2.6 trillion) using a TK2 Open supercomputer by Daisuke Takahashi at the University of Tsukuba in Japan |

2009 | π computed to 2,699,999,990,000 digits (2.7 trillion) using a Core i7 CPU by Fabrice Bellard |

2010 | π computed to 5 trillion digits by Alexander Yee and Shigeru Kondo |

2011 | π computed to 10 trillion digits by Alexander Yee and Shigeru Kondo |

2013 | π computed to 12.1 trillion digits by Alexander Yee and Shigeru Kondo |

2014 | π computed to 13.3 trillion digits by Alexander Yee |

2016 | π computed to 22.4 trillion digits by Alexander Yee and Peter Trueb |

2019 | π computed to 31.4 trillion digits using Google cloud processors by Emma Haruka Iwao |