This Day in History

August 22


851      Battle of Jengland—Erispoe, Duke of Brittany, defeats the Franks led by Charles the Bald leading to Breton independence   1168
1138      English forces defeat an invading Scottish army led by King David I—Battle of Standard on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire   881
1485      Richard III killed at Bosworth Fields—end of Plantagenets and effectively ending the War of the Roses   534
1639      English East India Company bought a small strip of land on the Coromandel Coast and founded city of Madras—now Chennai, India   380
1642      Charles I raises his standard in Nottingham marking the beginning of the English Civil War   377
1664      Eastern European astronomer Maria Cunitz dies, age around 54   355
1711      Quebec Expedition, British attempt to attack Quebec, fails when 8 ships and 900 men are lost on rocks in the St. Lawrence River   308
1791      slaves revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti   228
1806      French painter and printmaker Jean-Honoré Fragonard dies in Paris, age 74   213
1812      Johann Ludwig Burckhardt "rediscovers" Petra   207
1848      U.S. annexes New Mexico   171
1851      gold is discovered in Australia   168
1851      the schooner America outraces its opponent to win America's Cup   168
1862      French composer Claude Debussy is born   157
1864      first of several Geneva Conventions adopted that "define" the rules of war   155
1902      Cadillac Automobile Company, now Cadillac Motor Car Division, is formed in Detroit from remnants of the Henry Ford Company   117
1910      Japanese rule in Korea officially begins with the signing of the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty—formally repealed in 1965   109
1922      Chicago Cubs defeat the Philadelphia Phillies 26-23—the 49 runs is the highest total for any MLB game   97
1934      Bill Woodfull of Australia becomes the only cricket captain to twice regain The Ashes   85
1940      British physicist Oliver Joseph Lodge dies, age 89   79
1949      8.1 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake occurs off the coast of British Columbia—Canada's largest recorded earthquake   70
1952      France's penal colony on Devil's Island is permanently closed   67
1962      NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo ship, completes her maiden voyage   57
1963      Joseph A. Walker becomes the first person in space twice—above 100 km in an X-15   56
1965      Ellen Church, first female flight attendant, dies, age 60   54
1965      Giants pitcher Juan Marichal hits Dodger catcher John Roseboro in the head with his bat enciting an ugly brawl   54
1972      orbital missions of Soviet Mars 2 and Mars 3 terminated after about 8 months in Martian orbit   47
1974      Polish-English mathematician Jacob Bronowski dies in East Hampton, New York, age 66   45
1976      Luna 24 successfully returns to Earth with a sample of the lunar surface   43
1979      Diana Nyad completes a record long-distance swim of 102.5 mi from North Bimini Island, Bahamas, to Juno Beach, Florida   40
1989      Nolan Ryan achieves 5000th strikeout—goes on to record 5714   30
2000      100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope sees "first light"—world's largest fully steerable radio telescope   19
2006      Russian mathematician Grigori Perelman is awarded the Fields Medal for his proof of the Poincaré conjecture but refuses to accept   13
2006      Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise Flight 612 crashes in Eastern Ukraine killing all 170 aboard   13
2007      American short story author, poet, teacher, and political activist Grace Paley dies in Thetford, Vermont, age 84   12
2007      Rangers rout the Orioles 30-3—most runs scored by a team in modern Major League history   12
2007      the Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day   12
2008      last female veteran living in Canada of the First World War British Gladys Stokes Luxford Powers dies in British Columbia, age 109   11
2011      Robonaut 2 is awakened for its work aboard the International Space Station   8
2012      English novelist and children's writer Nina Bawden dies in London, age 87   7
2014      American chemist John Stewart Waugh dies in Concord, Massachusetts, age 85   5
2016      Belgian-American jazz musician Jean-Baptiste Frédéric Isidor (Toots Thielemans) dies, age 94   3
2016      supernova DES16C2nm detected by Dark Energy Survey (DES)—at 10.5 billion lightyears is most distant supernova ever observed   3
2017      British computer scientist Michael John Caldwell "Mike" Gordon dies, age 69   2
2017      Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (ISS-CREAM) detector is activated aboard the International Space Station   2
2018      Arianespace Vega rocket launches Aeolus from French Guiana—first satellite to measure Earth's winds on a global scale   1
2019      final launch of the Delta IV "single stick" medium-lift booster—second third-generation GPS satellite   0

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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