This Day in History

April 28


224      Battle of Hormozdgan results in a decisive Sasanian victory ending the Parthian Empire   1793
1253      Japanese monk Nichiren propounds Nam Myoho Renge Kyo for the first time founding Nichiren Buddhism   764
1503      heavily outnumbered Spanish forces defeat a French army in the Battle of Cerignola—first battle won by gunpowder small arms   514
1611      establishment of the University of Santo Tomas in Manilla—largest Catholic university in the world   406
1788      Maryland is the seventh state to ratify the U.S. Constitution   229
1789      Fletcher Christian leads mutiny on HMS Bounty   228
1869      Central Pacific Railroad workers lay a record 10 miles 56 feet of track in a 12 hour day   148
1897      Avondale School in Cooranbong, Australia, opens   120
1900      Dutch radio astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort is born   117
1903      death of Josiah Willard Gibbs, American mathematician, physicist, and chemist, age 64   114
1906      Kurt Gödel, mathematician, born   111
1910      Frenchman Louis Paulman wins the flight challenge between London and Manchester—first long-distance aeroplane race in England   107
1923      Wembley Stadium in London opens as Empire Stadium   94
1926      Erwin Schrödinger first uses the term 'wave mechanics'   91
1930      first night baseball game–Independence, Kansas   87
1945      Benito Mussolini is captured and executed by Italian partisans, age 61   72
1946      French mathematician Louis Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Bachelier dies, age 76   71
1948      ballet Orpheus composed by Igor Stavinsky premieres at the City Center of Music and Drama in New York City   69
1952      U.S. occupation of Japan ends   65
1960      Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist Antonie Pannekoek dies, age 87   57
1965      president Lyndon Johnson sends U.S. Marines to the Dominican Republic to restore order—Operation Power Pack   52
1986      U.S. aircraft carrier USS Enterprise becomes the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal   31
1996      gunman goes on a shooting spree at Port Arthur, Tasmania, killing 35 and wounding 24 others before being apprended   21
1999      American physicist and Nobel laureate Arthur Leonard Schawlow dies in Palo Alto, California, age 77   18
2000      English novelist, poet, essayist and biographer Penelope Fitzgerald dies in London, age 83   17
2001      Dennis Tito becomes first space tourist—launched aboard a Soyuz   16
2003      Apple opens iTunes Store to sell music on-line   14
2003      launch of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) ultraviolet space telescope satellite   14
2006      NASA launches CloudSat satellite to study Earth's clouds   11
2007      German nuclear physicist Carl Friedrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker dies, age 94   10
2007      Bertha Wernham Wilson, the first woman Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, dies in Ottawa, age 83   10
2013      American computer scientist John Charles Reynolds dies, age 77   4
2015      American writer and illustrator of children's books Marcia Joan Brown dies, age 96   2
2016      first launch from Vostochny Cosmodrome in east Russia—Soyuz vehicle carrying cosmic ray satellite Mikhailo Lomonosov   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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