This Day in History

June 23


79      Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus (Vespasian) dies after a reign of 10 years, age 69   1939
679      East Anglian princess, Northumbrian queen, and Abbess of Ely Æthelthryth dies, age around 43   1339
1180      Battle of Uji begins Genpei War between Taira clan and Minamoto clan forces in Japan   838
1280      Battle of Moclín results in a rout of the knights of Castile and Santiago by troops of the Emirate of Granada   738
1501      2nd Portuguese India Armada under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral returns to Lisbon   517
1565      Dragut (Targut Reis), commander of the Ottoman navy, dies during the Great Siege of Malta, age around 80   453
1594      Portuguese carrack Cinco Chagas explodes after being attacked by the English off Faial Island, Azores—rich treasure ship is totally lost   424
1611      Henry Hudson, his son, and seven loyal crew members are set adrift in Hudson Bay by mutinous crew—never heard from again   407
1733      Swiss paleontologist and scholar Johann Jakob Scheuchzer dies, age 60   285
1757      Battle of Passey results in a decisive victory by outnumbered British East India Company forces over the Nawab of Bengal   261
1812      Grande Armée of Napoleon, with 690,000 men, crosses river Neman to begin invasion of Russia   206
1860      Congress creates the U.S. Government Printing Office   158
1868      patent for Type-Writer issued to Christopher Sholes   150
1881      German biologist Matthias Jakob Schleiden dies in Frankfort, age 77   137
1887      Rocky Mountain Park is established in the region of Banff, Alberta as Canada's first National Park—renamed Banff National Park in 1930   131
1891      German physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber dies in Göttingen, age 86   127
1894      International Olympic Committee founded at the Sorbonne in Paris   124
1912      Alan Mathison Turing, British computer pioneer, mathematician, logician, and cryptanalyst, born in London   106
1917      after walking a batter, pitcher Babe Ruth is replaced by Ernie Shore who gets the runner out then the next 26 batters without a base runner   101
1919      Battle of Wenden near Cesis in Latvia results in a decisive Estonian victory against pro-German forces   99
1924      first transcontinental flight during daylight hours of a single day—Russell L. Maughan, Long Island to San Francisco in 20 hrs and 48 min   94
1946      7.3 earthquake strikes Vancouver Island, on the coast of British Columbia—Canada's largest historic onshore earthquake   72
1956      Russian and Soviet composer Reinhold Glière dies, age 81   62
1960      U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves Enovid as the first oral contraceptive   58
1961      Antarctic Treaty setting Antarctic aside as a scientific preserve goes into effect   57
1972      Title IX becomes law providing equal opportunites for women and men in education activities including sports   46
1985      terrorist bomb brings down Air India 182, a 747, off coast of Ireland, 329 die   33
1995      American medical researcher and virologist Jonas Edward Salk dies in La Jolla, California, age 80   23
1998      Irish born American actress Maureen Paula O'Sullivan dies in Scottsdale, Arizona, age 87   20
2001      8.4 earthquake off the coast of Peru generates a tsunami—kills 74, injures 2700, and destroys 17,500 homes   17
2006      American film and television producer and writer Aaron Spelling dies in Los Angeles, age 83   12
2009      Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, (LRO), enters a polar lunar orbit   9
2010      Southwestern Adventist University's Dinosaur Project excavates its 10,000th specimen   8
2011      American actor Peter Michael Falk dies in Beverly Hills, California, age 83   7
2011      American composer, conductor, orchestrator, film historian and arranger for television, radio, and film Frederick "Fred" Steiner dies, age 88   7
2012      British statistician and econometrician James Durbin dies, age 88   6
2012      Phillies Jim Thome sets MLB record with career 13th walk-off homerun to win over the Rays   6
2013      Nikolas "Nik" Wallenda becomes the first person to walk successfully across a gorge of the Grand Canyon on a high wire   5
2014      American writer of fiction for children and young adults Nancy Garden dies in Carlisle, Massachusetts, age 76   4
2016      American bluegrass artist Ralph Edmund Stanley dies, age 89   2
2016      Brexit: United Kingdom votes to withdraw from European Union membership   2

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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