This Day in History

March 29


845      Paris is sacked by Viking raiders led by Ragnar Lodbrok   1172
1461      Battle of Towton, the largest battle in English history, results in a Yorkist victory over Lancasterian forces   556
1638      first settlement in Delaware–established by Swedish colonists   379
1772      Swedish mathematician, scientist, philosopher, and theologian Emanuel Swedenborg dies in London, age 84   245
1807      Vesta is fourth asteroid discovered—Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers   210
1868      John Gray, last verifiable veteran of the American Revolutionary War, dies, age 104   149
1871      Royal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria   146
1873      Italian mathematician Tullio Levi-Civita born in Padua   144
1879      Zulu army of 20,000 attacks the British camp of 2000 at Kambula—results in decisive British victory   138
1882      Knights of Columbus Order is incorporated in the state of Connecticut   135
1888      French composer, pianist, and Bible translator Charles-Valentin Alkan dies, age 74   129
1891      French painter Georges-Pierre Seurat dies, age 31   126
1912      British Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott makes his last diary entry, age 43   105
1932      Jack Benny debuts on radio   85
1941      Battle of Cape Matapan concludes with a decisive victory by the British Royal Navy over the Italian Regia Marina   76
1941      North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement allocating AM radio frequencies goes into effect at 03:00 local time   76
1944      English mathematician Grace Chisholm Young dies, age 76   73
1946      Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México research university located in Mexico City founded   71
1961      The 23th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified—residents of Washington, D.C., can vote in presidential elections   56
1974      first flyby of Mercury, Mariner 10   43
1974      Terracotta Army depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang is discovered east of Xi'an in Shaanxi province by farmers digging a water well   43
1980      Anglo-Italian conductor Annunzio Paolo Mantovani dies in Kent, England, age 74   37
1983      Katherine Hepburn wins record fourth Academy Award for an actor or actress in a leading role—"On Golden Pond"   34
1984      amid controversy the NFL team Colts pack and leave Baltimore in the middle of the night to move to Indianapolis   33
1999      Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 10,000 mark (10,006.78) for the first time ever   18
2000      first MLB opening day and regular season game played outside North America—Cubs beat the Mets in Tokyo, Japan   17
2001      Norwegian explorer Helge Marcus Ingstad dies in Oslo, age 101   16
2001      American jazz pianist, composer, and founder of the Modern Jazz Quartet ohn Aaron Lewis dies in New York City, age 80   16
2003      Italian doctor and microbiologist and the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Carlo Urbani dies from SARS, age 46   14
2004      Republic of Ireland becomes first country to ban smoking in all work places   13
2004      Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia join NATO as full members   13
2013      Irish portrait artist Reginald Gray dies in Paris, age about 83   4
2013      Expedition 35 crew members dock with the International Space Station after a 6-hour flight—first crew to use a fast rendezvous flight profile   4
2016      American actress of stage, film, and television Patty Duke (born Anna Marie Duke) dies, age 69   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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