This Day in History

June 25


524      Battle of Vézeronce ends with Burgundian victory over Franks and Merovingians   1493
1530      the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany   487
1593      Italian physician and archaeologist Michele Mercati dies, age 52   424
1671      Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli dies, age 73   346
1678      Venetian mathematician Elena Cornaro Piscopia becomes first woman to receive Ph.D.   339
1682      coronation of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia   335
1767      German composer Georg Philipp Telemann dies, age 86   250
1786      St. George Island, the first of the Pribilof Islands to be discovered is discovered by Gavriil Pribylov   231
1788      Virginia is tenth state to ratify U.S. Constitution—four days after it had been ratified by needed nine states   229
1876      Battle of the Little Bighorn, U.S. troops are annihilated and George Armstrong Custer killed, age 36   141
1900      Dunhuang manuscripts from the 5th to early 11th centuries are discovered in a sealed cave by the Daoist monk Wang Yuanlu   117
1903      birth of author Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell) in British India   114
1910      "The Firebird" ballet by Igor Stravinsky premiers in Paris by the Ballets Russes   107
1913      first day of the Great Reunion of 1913 involving Union and Confederate veterans meeting at the Gettysburg Battlefield   104
1916      American artist Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins dies in Philadelphia, age 71   101
1936      American Airlines inaugural flagship flight with a Douglas DC-3—New York to Chicago   81
1947      "The Diary of Anne Frank" is published posthumously as "The Diary of a Young Girl"   70
1950      forces from northern Korea invade the south initiating the Korean conflict   67
1951      CBS transmits the first color television program   66
1960      German astronomer Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade dies in Göttingen, age 67   57
1961      Canadian aviation pioneer John Alexander Douglas McCurdy dies in Montreal, age 74   56
1967      first live international television broadcast, European Broadcasting Union and BBC's "Our World"   50
1974      Jewish Hungarian mathematician and physicist Cornelius Lanczos dies in Budapest, age 81   43
1975      Mozambique achieves independence from Portugal   42
1976      American lyricist, songwriter, and co-founder of Capitol Records John Herndon "Johnny" Mercer dies in Hollywood, age 66   41
1981      Microsoft is incorporated in the state of Washington   36
1984      American singer Prince releases his most successful album "Purple Rain"   33
1993      Avril Phædra Douglas "Kim" Campbell takes office as the first woman Prime Minister of Canada   24
1995      Irish physicist and Nobel laureate Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton dies in Belfast, age 91   22
1997      undersea explorer Jacques Cousteau dies, age 87   20
1997      unmanned Progress collides with Mir threatening the lives of the occupants and permanently depressurizing Spektr   20
2009      Pop music composer and recording artist Michael Joseph Jackson dies in Los Angeles, age 50   8
2011      American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist Annie J. Easley dies, age 78   6
2014      British science writer Nigel David McKail Ritchie-Calder dies, age 82   3
2016      maiden flight of China's Long March 7 and first launch from Wenchang Satellite Launch Center on Hainan Island   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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