This Day in History

October 25


1047      Magnus the Good, King of Norway dies after a reign of 12 years and King of Denmark for 5 years, age 23   971
1141      Stephen of Blois, Stephen, King of England, dies, age around 60   877
1147      Second Crusade army of 20,000 led by Conrad III is annihilated by the Seljuk Turks led by Mesud I in the Battle of Dorylaeum   871
1147      crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques reconquer Lisbon from the Moors after a siege of four months   871
1154      Henry Plantagenet becomes Henry II King of England on the death of Stephen, age around 60   864
1400      English author and poet Geoffrey Chaucer dies, age around 56   618
1415      English longbows defeat a larger French force at Agincourt   603
1647      Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli dies in Florence, age 39   371
1671      astronomer Giovanni Cassini discovers Saturn's moon Iapetus   347
1733      Italian priest and mathematician Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri dies in Pavia, Italy, age 66   285
1760      George III ascends the throne of England—during his reign England's North American colonies revolt and gain their freedom   258
1806      Revolutionary general and the first U.S. Secretary of War, Henry Knox, dies near Thomaston, Maine, age 56   212
1811      birth of French mathematician Évariste Galois in Bourg-la-Reine in the southern suburbs of Paris   207
1812      American frigate, USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian   206
1825      Austrian composer Johann Strauss II born in St. Ulrich   193
1854      Charge of the Light Brigade takes place in the Crimean War   164
1861      Toronto Stock Exchange founded   157
1875      first performance of Tchaikovsky's Piano Concerto No. 1 is given in Boston   143
1881      Spanish artist Pablo Picasso born in Málaga, Spain   137
1921      American Old West figure William Barclay "Bat" Masterson dies in New York City, age 67   97
1927      Italian liner SS Principessa Mafalda sinks off coast of Brazil after a fractured propeller shaft damages the hull—of 1252 aboard, 314 die   91
1940      Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is promoted to Brigadier General becoming the first black general in the U.S. Army   78
1944      U.S. submarine USS Tang under Richard O'Kane is sunk by the ship's own malfunctioning torpedo   74
1949      British astronomer and scholar Mary Acworth Evershed dies in Surrey, age 82   69
1955      Tappan introduces the first microwave oven for home use   63
1971      United Nations General Assembly votes to admit China and expel Taiwan   47
1973      Yom Kippur War ends with an Israeli victory over Egypt and Syria   45
1983      U.S. and Caribbean allies invade Grenada—ends with restoration of a constitutional government   35
1986      American film and television actor Forrest Meredith Tucker dies in Los Angeles, age 67   32
2001      Microsoft releases Windows XP successor to Windows 2000 and Windows Me   17
2002      Irish actor and singer Richard St John Harris dies in London, age 72   16
2002      French mathematician René Frédéric Thom dies, age 79   16
2003      Turkish physicist Behram Kurşunoĝlu dies in Miami, age 81   15
2003      British Mars Lander Beagle 2 lands on Mars but does not communicate   15
2004      English disc jockey, radio presenter, record producer and journalist John Robert Parker Ravenscroft (John Peel) dies in Cusco, Peru, age 65   14
2006      launch of twin STEREO spacecraft to observe simultaneously solar storms   12
2007      A380 superjumbo plane completes first commercial flight, Singapore to Sydney   11
2009      two suicide car bombs explode in Baghdad killing 155 and injuring more than 720 others   9
2014      Royals manager makes the first manager's challenge in a World Series—the on-field safe call on a Giants runner was confirmed   4
2016      last of the data recorded by New Horizons during its Pluto flyby in July 2015 are transmitted to Earth   2
2016      Cubs and Indians meet in the World Series—Cubs last won in 1908 (108 years) and Indians in 1948 (68 years)—two longest gaps in MLB   2
2017      Saudi Arabia is the first nation to grant citizenship to a humanoid robot—female appearing Sophia   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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