This Day in History

August 22


851      Battle of Jengland—Erispoe, Duke of Brittany, defeats the Franks led by Charles the Bald leading to Breton independence   1166
1138      English forces defeat an invading Scottish army led by King David I—Battle of Standard on Cowton Moor near Northallerton in Yorkshire   879
1485      Richard III killed at Bosworth Fields—end of Plantagenets and effectively ending the War of the Roses   532
1639      English East India Company bought a small strip of land on the Coromandel Coast and founded city of Madras—now Chennai, India   378
1664      Eastern European astronomer Maria Cunitz dies, age around 54   353
1711      Quebec Expedition, British attempt to attack Quebec, fails when 8 ships and 900 men are lost on rocks in the St. Lawrence River   306
1791      slaves revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti   226
1806      French painter and printmaker Jean-Honoré Fragonard dies in Paris, age 74   211
1812      Johann Ludwig Burckhardt "rediscovers" Petra   205
1848      U.S. annexes New Mexico   169
1851      gold is discovered in Australia   166
1851      the schooner America outraces its opponent to win America's Cup   166
1862      French composer Claude Debussy is born   155
1864      first of several Geneva Conventions adopted that "define" the rules of war   153
1902      Cadillac Automobile Company, now Cadillac Motor Car Division, is formed in Detroit from remnants of the Henry Ford Company   115
1910      Japanese rule in Korea officially begins with the signing of the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty—formally repealed in 1965   107
1922      Chicago Cubs defeat the Philadelphia Phillies 26-23—the 49 runs is the highest total for any MLB game   95
1940      British physicist Oliver Joseph Lodge dies, age 89   77
1949      8.1 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake occurs off the coast of British Columbia—Canada's largest recorded earthquake   68
1952      France's penal colony on Devil's Island is permanently closed   65
1962      NS Savannah, the first nuclear-powered cargo ship, completes her maiden voyage   55
1963      Joseph A. Walker becomes the first person in space twice—above 100 km in an X-15   54
1965      Ellen Church, first female flight attendant, dies, age 60   52
1965      Giants pitcher Juan Marichal hits Dodger catcher John Roseboro in the head with his bat enciting an ugly brawl   52
1972      orbital missions of Mars 2 and Mars 3 terminated after about 8 months in Martian orbit   45
1974      Polish-English mathematician Jacob Bronowski dies in East Hampton, New York, age 66   43
1976      Luna 24 successfully returns to Earth with a sample of the lunar surface   41
1979      Diana Nyad completes a record long-distance swim of 102.5 mi from North Bimini Island, Bahamas, to Juno Beach, Florida   38
1989      Nolan Ryan achieves 5000th strikeout—goes on to record 5714   28
2000      100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope sees "first light"—world's largest fully steerable radio telescope   17
2007      Rangers rout the Orioles 30-3—most runs scored by a team in modern Major League history   10
2007      the Storm botnet, a botnet created by the Storm Worm, sends out a record 57 million e-mails in one day   10
2011      Robonaut 2 is awakened for its work aboard the International Space Station   6
2012      English novelist and children's writer Nina Bawden dies in London, age 87   5
2014      American chemist John Stewart Waugh dies in Concord, Massachusetts, age 85   3

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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