This Day in History

October 22


4004BC  creation of the world begins as calculated by Bishop James Ussher, Primate of all Ireland, in 1648   6020
2137BC  astronomers Ho and Hi write earliest historical record of a solar eclipse   4153
362      Temple of Apollo at Daphne near Antioch destroyed by fire   1655
451      Council of Chalcedon adopts the Chalcedonian Definition acknowledging the divine and human nature of Jesus Christ   1566
741      Charles Martel, Frankish military and political leader, dies, age about 53   1276
1383      Ferdinand I of Portugal dies after a reign of 16 years without a male heir ending the Burgundian line precipitating a period of crisis   634
1633      Battle of Liaoluo Bay—Ming Dynasty navy defeats ships of the Dutch East India Company—largest naval engagement of the 17th century   384
1707      due to error in longitude determination ships of Cloudesley Shovell's fleet run aground on the Isles of Scilly—1550 sailors perish   310
1746      Princeton University is founded as the College of New Jersey (name changed in 1896)   271
1777      Battle of Red Bank—Hessian force sent to take Fort Mercer south of Philadelphia is decisively defeated by a smaller force of Colonials   240
1792      French astronomer Guillaume Joseph Hyacinthe Jean-Baptiste Le Gentil de la Galaisière dies, age 67   225
1797      first parachute jump—Andre-Jacques Garnerin from a balloon above Paris   220
1836      Sam Houston inaugurated as first president of the Republic of Texas   181
1844      Great Disappointment of William Miller   173
1861      the first transcontinental telegraph connects east and west coasts of the U.S.   156
1877      explosion in Blantyre Colliery kills 207—Scotland's worst mining disaster   140
1879      Thomas Edison achieves success with first practical electric incandescent light bulb   138
1895      train runs through its stop at the Gare Montparnasse terminus in Paris and the locomotive crashes to the street below   122
1904      confused Russian Baltic Fleet in the Dogger Bank area of the North Sea fire on a British trawler fleet and each other   113
1906      French artist Paul Cézanne dies, age 67   111
1938      Chester F. Carlson obtains the first 'dry-copy' on the copy machine he invented   79
1943      Allied strategic bombing attacks destroy the German city of Kassel—10,000 killed, 150,000 left homeless   74
1960      Paul Edward (Ed) Yost makes the first-ever free flight of a modern hot air balloon from Bruning, Nebraska   57
1966      The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album—The Supremes A' Go-Go   51
1966      U.S.S.R. launches Luna 12 to orbit and photograph the lunar surface   51
1968      Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the North Atlantic ending the first manned flight of the Apollo Program   49
1973      Spanish cellist Pablo Casals dies in San Juan, Puerto Rica, age 96   44
1975      British historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee dies in Oxford, age 86   42
1975      U.S.S.R. Venera 9 transmits first images from surface of Venus— transmits data for 53 minutes   42
1979      French composer, conductor, and teacher Juliette Nadia Boulanger dies in Paris, age 92   38
1992      Pioneer Venus Orbiter is destroyed upon entering the atmosphere of Venus after 13 years, 10 months in orbit   25
2005      French-born American artist Arman (born Armand Fernandez) dies in New York City, age 76   12
2008      India launches its first lunar mission, orbiter Chandrayaan-1   9
2011      defunct 2.7 ton German satellite ROSAT makes an uncontrolled reentry over the Bay of Bengal   6
2012      Italian scientists are convicted of manslaughter and sentenced for failure to predict the 6.3 L'Aquila 2009 earthquake   5
2015      American comic book artist Murphy C. Anderson, Jr. dies, age 89   2
2016      Tell the World, film of the Millerite movement and early history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, is released   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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