This Day in History

June 25


524      Battle of Vézeronce ends with Burgundian victory over Franks and Merovingians   1494
1530      the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany   488
1593      Italian physician and archaeologist Michele Mercati dies, age 52   425
1671      Italian astronomer Giovanni Battista Riccioli dies, age 73   347
1678      Venetian mathematician Elena Cornaro Piscopia becomes first woman to receive Ph.D.   340
1682      coronation of Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia   336
1767      German composer Georg Philipp Telemann dies, age 86   251
1786      St. George Island, the first of the Pribilof Islands to be discovered is discovered by Gavriil Pribylov   232
1788      Virginia is tenth state to ratify U.S. Constitution—four days after it had been ratified by needed nine states   230
1876      Battle of the Little Bighorn, U.S. troops are annihilated and George Armstrong Custer killed, age 36   142
1900      Dunhuang manuscripts from the 5th to early 11th centuries are discovered in a sealed cave by the Daoist monk Wang Yuanlu   118
1903      birth of author Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell) in British India   115
1910      "The Firebird" ballet by Igor Stravinsky premiers in Paris by the Ballets Russes   108
1913      first day of the Great Reunion of 1913 involving Union and Confederate veterans meeting at the Gettysburg Battlefield   105
1916      American artist Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins dies in Philadelphia, age 71   102
1936      American Airlines inaugural flagship flight with a Douglas DC-3—New York to Chicago   82
1947      "The Diary of Anne Frank" is published posthumously as "The Diary of a Young Girl"   71
1950      forces from northern Korea invade the south initiating the Korean conflict   68
1951      CBS transmits the first color television program   67
1960      German astronomer Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade dies in Göttingen, age 67   58
1961      Canadian aviation pioneer John Alexander Douglas McCurdy dies in Montreal, age 74   57
1961      first female governor of Texas Miriam Amanda Wallace "Ma" Ferguson dies in Austin, age 86   57
1967      first live international television broadcast, European Broadcasting Union and BBC's "Our World"   51
1974      Jewish Hungarian mathematician and physicist Cornelius Lanczos dies in Budapest, age 81   44
1975      Mozambique achieves independence from Portugal   43
1976      American lyricist, songwriter, and co-founder of Capitol Records John Herndon "Johnny" Mercer dies in Hollywood, age 66   42
1981      Microsoft is incorporated in the state of Washington   37
1982      Blade Runner is released   36
1984      American singer Prince releases his most successful album "Purple Rain"   34
1993      Avril Phædra Douglas "Kim" Campbell takes office as the first woman Prime Minister of Canada   25
1995      Irish physicist and Nobel laureate Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton dies in Belfast, age 91   23
1996      truck bomb detonates at the Khobar Towers in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, killing 20 and injuring 498 others   22
1997      undersea explorer Jacques Cousteau dies, age 87   21
1997      unmanned Progress collides with Mir threatening the lives of the occupants and permanently depressurizing Spektr   21
2004      New Zealand inventor, continuous fermentation method for brewing beer, Morton William Coutts dies, age 100   14
2009      Pop music composer and recording artist Michael Joseph Jackson dies in Los Angeles, age 50   9
2011      American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist Annie J. Easley dies, age 78   7
2014      British science writer Nigel David McKail Ritchie-Calder dies, age 82   4
2016      maiden flight of China's Long March 7 and first launch from Wenchang Satellite Launch Center on Hainan Island   2
2016      bright gamma ray burst from 9 billion light years GRB 160625B is detected by NASA's Fermi satellite—observed by several telescopes   2
2017      tanker truck overturns, leaks fuel, and explodes in Bahawalpur, Pakistan—157 killed and 118 others injured as they tried to collect spilt fuel   1

Dates are always somewhat ambiguous, the exact date depends on whether local time is used (and local time where) or Universal Time—for events on the surface of the Earth, local time is probably best but for an event that spans across the planet, it is not clear which local time to use!. For events in space it is more ambiguous. Further for dates after the original adoption of the Gregorian calendar but before it became accepted in different countries, the date given may be a Julian date or a Gregorian date depending upon where the event occurred. And, even the year may be different since the first of the year has not always been January 1 in all countries! The attempt is to use a date that is the one that is typically given.

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