Using Rocket Science to Study Rock Science

Traditional Method

Use standard surveying equipment to establish benchmarks and a grid of intersecting strings.
Then use:
  • levels
  • tape measures
  • plumb bobs
  • subdivided grids
  • pencils and Field Book
to determine and record the coordinates—later copy the values into a computer record


  • inexpensive
  • minimal training


  • awkward
  • time consuming—tendency to record few points
  • subject to reading errors
  • subject to recording errors
  • subject to transcription errors

manual grid

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